booksSalary and Wages Administration



This book is unique of it’s type in Pakistan. It intends to provide briefly basic knowledge on the subjects contained in the book as a  reference and guide book for use of those who are in the profession of industrial relations and human resources management.

The contents of the book are based mainly on memory of my past readings and professional experience of over 55 years. I have referred to the papers read by me in conferences and seminars, relevant labour laws and case laws mentioned in the book. The laws and case laws referred to in the book are as till the writing of the book and any subsequent amendments and changes made in the laws and developments in case laws may be referred.

Mr. S. M. Iqbal has assisted me in compilation, proof reading and publication of the book.

I hope the book may be found useful for those who are in the profession as well as others to gain knowledge on the contents of the book.

S. M. Yaqoob

19th’ March, 2012


Salary & Wage administration, Early Craftsmen and Industrial Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Policy of Laissez Faire, State Intervention in Labour matters, Factories Act –– the mother of Labour Laws, industrial Disputes Laws, Trade Union Laws, Trade Unions, Scientific Management, Time Study and Motion Study, Personnel Management and Human Resources Management, Reports of Labour Commissions and Labour Investigation Committee, Industrial Psychology, International Labour organisation (I.L.O.).  










Pages 1–13

Professional Management and Trade Unions connected with Salary and Wages, Management Chart, One Over One, Types of Management, Line Management, Staff Management, Line and Staff Management, Joint Management, Functions of Management: 1- Planning 2- Organising 3- Directing 4- Controlling and 5- Coordination, Delegation of Authority, Functions determine the status of Manager, Case Laws, Personnel Management & Human Resources Management, Trade Unions, Collective Bargaining Agent.  











Pages 14–25

Determining Factors of Wages, Policy of Laissez Faire, State Intervention in Labour matters, Social Justice, Theories of Wages, Subsistence Wage, Labour Supply and Demand, Marginal Productivity Theory, Marxist Theory of Wages, Prevailing Market rates of Wages, Collective Bargaining, Arbitration and Adjudication Awards, Minimum Wages fixed by states, Free Market Economy, Types of Wages, 1- Subsistence Wage 2- Minimum Wage 3- Fair Wage 4- Living Wage.  










Pages 26–35

Bifurcation of Salary or Wages, Benefits given by the Statutes in cash or kind, other voluntary or Benefits under C.B.A. Settlements, Condition of Service Case Law, Standing Orders, Laws on Social Security, Reducing and Modifying the Benefits to the Workers, Benefits under the Expired Settlements, set off of Benefits given by the law against the benefits under the settlement, Case Laws.  








Pages 36–46




                        CHAPTER – V

Statutory Allowances and Monetary Benefits, Provincial Laws on Statutory Special allowances (Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pk. and Punjab) Minimum Wages Ordinance, 1961, The Minimum Wages for Unskilled Workers Ordinance, 1969, Wages for Weekly Holidays, Case Law, Workers Children (Education) Ordinance, 1972 The Workers Welfare Ordinance, 1971, The Companies Profits (Workers Participation) Act, 1968 Provisions of Social Security by Statutes, Unemployment Benefit.  











Pages 47–57

Bonus and profit Sharing, Customary Bonus, Festival Bonus, Custom, Usage and Practice, Production Bonus, Profit Bonus, Profit bonus Full Bench Formula, Prior Charges, Available Surplus, Bonus under SO. 10-C, Case Laws, the Companies Profits (Workers Participation) Act, 1968, Case Laws.  





Pages 58–69


Collective bargaining, Arbitration and Adjudication of Industrial disputes, Basis and Principles of Industrial dispute awards, onus of proof, Case laws on points, Benevolent despot.  



Pages 70–78



Payment of Wages, Leave, Double Employment, weekly holidays, Minimum Wages, Wages for Weekly Holidays & Case Law, Continuous Process Plants, Annual Shutdown, Working on festival Holiday, Overtime and Exemptions, Obligation to work over time, overtime for the Management Staff, Suspension, Incentives, Canteen Subsidy, Loans, Car/Motorcycle Loan, Co. Products, Fair            Prince Shops.  








Pages 79–90

Children, Adolescent and Adult Workers, Female/Women Workers, Employment by married women, Crèche for Children of working women, Special Provisions for female workers.  



Pages 91–97

Labour Welfare measures, Types of Welfare measures, Direct Statutory monetary benefits, indirect statutory benefits, The Factories Act, 1934, Hygiene Cards, Welfare Officers, Occupational Diseases and Hazardous Occupations, canteen, Certificate of Stability, Workers Welfare Fund, Workers Children (Education) Ordinance, 1972, Mines Laws, Recreation and Sports facilities, Medical facilities, Concessional rate of Co.’s products, Fair price shops, Loan Fund, Hajj, Welfare activities by Trade Union.  










Pages 98–110

Job  Evaluation , Job Analysis, Job Specification, Job description, Specimen of a Job description, Job evaluation, Job Evaluation Committee, Fallow-up Repetition of Job Evaluation, Evaluation of Jobs with Intangible factors/elements, First Selecting Key Jobs for Ranking and Evaluation, Job Classification System, Job ranking method, Job Ranking Form, Factor Comparison method, Identification of common factors, Business or Functional Criteria  Evaluation , Points system method, Identification of common Factors, common Factors multiplied, Division of numbers of the factor, Evaluation of each common factor of every Job, Salary Grades/Scales, Criticism,  profile method of Job Evaluation  















Pages 111–126

Salary/Wage Scales, Salary Scale Span, Two rates of increments, Efficiency bar, Overlapping of Scales, Listing the Jobs against Scales, Basic Salary Scales of Workers, Basis Salary Scales of Management Staff, Salary Scales of Piece rated Workers, Minimum Wages fixed by Statute, wage differentials, Fixation in Salary Scales, Point to point Fixation, Revision of Salary Scales, Annual Increment – Step-wise Increment, private Sector, number of Salary Scales, Annual Appraisal and Annual Appraisal Form, Stoppage of annual increment, Recurring Effect, Non-Recurring Effect, move-over, Transfer and redesignation, demotion, Revertion from promotion.  














Pages 127–139

Contracting System, Job contract, specific individual job contract, Service contract, standing order 20, case laws, right of employer to engage contractors recognized, case laws, reasons of contracting, regulation of contact employment, case laws.  





Pages 140–149

Absenteeism, Meaning of the term, causes of absenteeism, losses due to absenteeism, Removal of causes of absenteeism, Proper manpower, Badli system, Excessive quantum of leave entitlement, leave, Leave of absence explained, casual leaves, Sick leave, annual/privilege leave, encashment of leave, overstayal on leave,  omission of S.O. 8(3) & (4), linking leave entitlement with number of days present, medical certificates, Rule 111 of W.P. Factories Rules, 1962, Outside medical certificates, uniform application of leave rules and practice, Disciplinary action, measurement of absenteeism, Absenteeism graph, Records and research, Labour Turnover, Separation, Termination, Dismissal, Resignation, Reasons of Turnover, losses due to turnover, Removal of causes of turnover.  
















Pages 150–168

Agriculture labour, big landlords, types of agriculture labour, Landless rural labour, families of small landholders, under employment and disguisened employment, serf labour, Brick making labour, nature of agriculture work, working conditions of agriculture labour, structure of agriculture labour, modernization and mechanization of agriculture, hours of work, irrigation by canal, wage of agriculture labour, minimum wages for agriculture labour, indebtness of agriculture labour, housing of agriculture labour, Price fixation and Agriculture Loans, migration to cities, organisation of agriculture labour, ILO and agriculture labour, Agrarian reform and agriculture labour laws.  















Pages 169–179

15 ILO Conventions ratified by Pakistan before 1947 inherited by Pakistan, 15 conventions ratified between 1947 to 1971, 6 convention ratified after 1972, salient features of 1969 labour policy of Pakistan, Introduction and summary, Industrial Relations, Settlement of Disputes – industrial conflicts fall into two categories, minimum wages and labour welfare, minimum wages, three separate and distinct services/departments, 18th amendment of the Constitution and the Labour.  









Pages 180–203


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